Questions & Answers
Influenza - Seasonal - The Disease
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General Information

  1. What is seasonal influenza disease?

    Influenza, or the flu, is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza types A or B viruses. Influenza viruses are easily spread by airborne respiratory droplets from person to person (often by sneezing or coughing).

    Symptoms of infection include fever, muscle aches, headache, malaise (a general feeling of sickness), cough, sore throat, and runny nose. The flu causes mild illness in most people, the majority of whom will not need medical care or antiviral drugs, and usually recover in less than two weeks. Some people, however, can suffer flu complications that result in being hospitalized. Sometimes influenza infection results in death.

    Pneumonia, bronchitis, sinus infections and ear infections are examples of more severe flu-related complications. The flu also can make chronic health problems worse. For example, people with asthma may experience more frequent asthma attacks while they have the flu. The flu may also worsen congestive heart failure in people with this condition.

  2. How soon will I get sick after exposure to the influenza virus?
    Symptoms usually start 1 to 4 days, with an average of 2 days, after the virus enters the body.

  3. Will new strains of influenza virus circulate this season?

    Influenza viruses are constantly changing, so it is not unusual for new strains of influenza virus to emerge each year. For more information on how flu viruses change, visit “How the flu Virus Can Change”:

    This year's influenza vaccines were made using the following strains:

    • A/California/07/2009 (H1N1)pdm09 -like virus
    • A/ Switzerland/9715293/2013(H3N2)-like virus
    • B/Phuket/3073/2013 like virus (This is a B/Yamagata lineage virus)
    • B/Brisbane/60/2008-like virus (This is a B/Victoria lineage virus. For the quadrivalent influenza vaccine)

    The B/Brisbane/60/2008 is a change from last year's formulation.

  4. How does influenza spread?
    Influenza usually spreads from person-to-person through aerosolized respiratory droplets released when a person coughs, sneezes, or talks and the droplets then get into a nearby person’s mouth, nose or possibly inhaled into their lungs. Less frequently, people may become infected with influenza by touching something contaminated with the virus and then touching their mouth, nose, or eyes.

  5. What should I do if I am infected with the influenza virus?

    If your flu symptoms are mild, you should stay home and avoid contact with others. Getting plenty of rest, drinking fluids, and avoiding alcohol and tobacco will help your body to fight off the illness more quickly. If you use over-the-counter medications to relieve symptoms, it is important to follow the manufacturer's instructions. Protect others by covering your mouth when coughing and sneezing, wash your hands frequently, and stay at home while you are feeling ill.

    If you are in a high risk group and have symptoms, or you are very sick or worried about your illness, contact your health care provider.

  6. Who is at high risk for developing flu related complications?

    Children younger than 5 but especially children younger than 2 years of age, adult 65 years and older, pregnant women and individuals with various chronic medical conditions are at greatest risk for hospitalization and possibly death related to infection.p>

    A full list of high-risk conditions can be found at: