The Army Medical Department designed MEDPROS to provide for the data entry and reporting/tracking
of Medical and Dental Readiness information of Soldiers, Units, and Task Forces.
The primary users of the MEDPROS online applications are the Soldier Readiness Processing
(SRP) locations, Medical Treatment Facilities, National Guard State and Army Reserve
RRC Surgeon's Offices, and unit Commanders at all levels needing to monitor the
Medical Readiness status of their subordinate units and Soldiers. MEDPROS also provides
every Soldier with AKO alerts as to their Individual Medical Readiness status thereby
eliminating their need to obtain access to the online systems.
As an important part of the Medical Operational Data System (MODS), MEDPROS contains
the following 4 key modules:
MRRS is the Navy,
US Marine Corps and US Coast Guard’s Tool for viewing Force Medical Readiness and
immunization tracking. MRRS is a web-based, real-time application with a central
aggregating database, links with existing authoritative data systems including NSIPS
and MCTFS for personnel tracking. MRRS gives headquarters staffs and leadership
a real-time view of Force Medical Readiness and immunization status.
As a module of the USAF Aeromedical
Services Information Management System (ASIMS), AFCITA client provides the
Air Force a data management portal to all of its fixed facilities to track immunization
data for all their personnel. ASIMS Web provides the Air Force the capability to
track immunization data through a web portal for all their personnel both in fixed
or deployed facilities.
In April 2000, the research project published its first peer-reviewed report, describing an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that could detect antibodies to squalene induced in mice. Use of squalene alone did not produce a significant amount of anti-squalene antibodies. A special chemical was needed to induce the antibodies against squalene in mice. After injecting mice with liposomes (fat globules) containing 71% squalene (710 million parts per billion), plus a second chemical called lipid A, antibodies to squalene were readily induced in mice. The validity of the method was established using positive and negative controls to preclude false positive and false-negative test results. The investigators concluded that squalene is a weak antigen (a weak inducer of antibodies). (Matyas et al., 2000).
By September 2001, researchers reported improving the assay and ensuring these tests were reproducible and sensitive enough to detect 80 ng/ml of anti-squalene antibody. The test was also reproducible from experiment to experiment (Matyas et al., 2001). The third study from this research effort, published in 2004, adapts the test described above so that it could detect anti-squalene antibodies if present in human serum. Serum from three groups of people were tested: retired employees of the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (average 68 years of age, 88% of whom received anthrax vaccine, mean = 26 doses per person) , civilian volunteers of similar age from Frederick, Maryland (none of whom received anthrax vaccine), and random blood donors from Fort Knox, Kentucky (vaccination status unknown), This next study indicates that anti-squalene antibodies are found in 7.5% of the vaccinated USAMRIID alumni, 15% of the unvaccinated Frederick civilians, and in 0% of the Fort Knox blood donors. The antibodies described in the previous sentence were a type of antibody called IgG. Researchers found another type of anti-squalene antibody called IgM in all three groups (37%, 32%, and 19%). The researchers found that anti-squalene antibodies are more common with increasing age (a characteristic also found in mice). The presence of anti-squalene antibodies was unrelated to anthrax vaccination status. They concluded that anti-squalene antibodies occur naturally in humans (Matyas et al., 2004).
We welcome all healthcare workers to the DoD Immunization University. We are committed
to making this the most fruitful single location to access to a wide range of training
products relating to immunization services.
What is Immunization University?
An informal collection of guidelines and training resources, sponsored by the Military
Vaccine Agency, to help staff make every immunization an excellent one. Designed
to enhance the skills of healthcare workers from a variety of professional and paraprofessional
backgrounds, "Immunization University" offers training on vaccine products and immunization
services through distance learning and on-site classes.
The ImzU logo, with its torch as beacon, emphasizes our educational efforts via
Immunization University, “Imz U.” Established in 2005, its motto is “Each Immunization
an Excellent One,” summarizing our obligations as leaders and clinicians in the
United States Armed Forces. The banner reads Scientia * Tutela * Salveo, referring
to our keystones of knowledge, protection, and health.
The core elements of Immunization University are available
Additional tools and courses will be added over time. Please sign up for our ListServ
which will also include updates as they become available. You may also check back
to this page regularly for the latest information on Immunization University.
The MILVAX ListServ is a bimonthly electronic newsletter sent to ImzU registered
users. It includes important information about DoD vaccines, immunization policies
and practices, training opportunities, and other vaccine-related information; as
well as the latest ACIP and CDC guidelines and recommendations.
Review archived copies
of these messages.