Influenza - Seasonal
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Influenza virus
photo of influenza

Influenza is a highly contagious viral infection. There are three main antigen types of influenza: types A, B, and C. Influenza type A causes moderate to severe illness and affects all age groups. Type A can infect both humans and animals. Influenza type B generally causes milder disease than type A and primarily affects children. Type B infects only humans. Influenza type C is rarely reported as a cause of human illness. Influenza activity peaks from December to March in the Northern Hemisphere.

Influenza is transmitted from person to person mainly when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Transmission can also occur from direct or indirect contact with respiratory secretions, such as when touching surfaces contaminated with influenza virus and then touching the eyes, nose, or mouth. Transmission can occur from the day before symptoms begin until about 5 days after symptoms begin in adults, or up to 10 days or more after symptoms begin in children.

About 50% of infected persons will develop "classic" influenza disease. This is characterized by the abrupt onset of fever, muscle pain, sore throat, nonproductive cough, runny nose, and headache. These symptoms generally last from 2 to 3 days. However, some people may experience a loss of strength or energy for several weeks. In addition, some people may develop complications, such as pneumonia.      

About the Vaccine

There are two main types of influenza vaccine. The first type is an inactivated vaccine given intramuscularly. There are multiple brands of inactivated influenza vaccine. There is also an intradermal inactivated influenza vaccine. The second type is a live attenuated vaccine given intranasally. Each year new formulations of influenza vaccines are made based on the predicted strains expected to cause illness during that season.

Influenza Vaccine Licensed for Use in the U.S.

Product: Afluria® (Inactivated Influenza Vaccine)
Manufacturer: CSL Biotherapies
Year licensed: 2007
Product Insert

Product: Fluarix® (Inactivated Influenza Vaccine)
Manufacturer: GlaxoSmithKline
Year licensed: 2005
Product Insert

Product: Fluarix Quadrivalent ® (Inactivated Influenza Vaccine)
Manufacturer: GlaxoSmithKline
Year licensed: 2012
Product Insert

Product: Flublok® (Inactivated Influenza Vaccine)
Manufacturer: Protein Sciences Corporation
Year licensed: 2013
Product Insert

Product: Flucelvax® (Inactivated Influenza Vaccine)
Manufacturer: Novartis Vaccines
Year licensed: 2012
Product Insert

Product: FluLaval® (Inactivated Influenza Vaccine)
Manufacturer: GlaxoSmithKline
Year licensed: 2006
Product Insert

Product: FluLaval Quadrivalent® (Inactivated Influenza Vaccine)
Manufacturer: GlaxoSmithKline
Year licensed: 2013
Product Insert

Product Name: FluMist Quadrivalent® (Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine)
Manufacturer: MedImmune
Year licensed: 2003
Product Insert

Product Name: Fluvirin® (Inactivated Influenza Vaccine)
Manufacturer: Novartis Vaccine
Year licensed: 1988
Product Insert

Product Name: Fluzone® (Inactivated Influenza Vaccine)
Manufacturer: Sanofi Pasteur
Year licensed: 1980
Product Insert

Product Name: Fluzone High-Dose® (Inactivated Influenza Vaccine)
Manufacturer: Sanofi Pasteur
Year licensed: 2009
Product Insert

Product Name: Fluzone Intradermal® (Inactivated Influenza Vaccine)
Manufacturer: Sanofi Pasteur
Year licensed: 2011
Product Insert

Product Name: : Fluzone Quadrivalent® (Inactivated Influenza Vaccine)
Manufacturer: Sanofi Pasteur
Year licensed: 2013
Product Insert

Indications Contraindications and precautions
  • All people 6 months and older.
  • People who have had a severe allergic reaction to a previous dose of influenza vaccine or an influenza vaccine component.*
  • People who are moderately or severely ill should wait until recovery before receiving any vaccine. Minor illnesses, such as a cold, are not a contraindication. Note: If the person has nasal congestion, do not administer influenza vaccine by the intranasal route.
  • People who have a history of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) within 6 weeks of a previous dose of influenza vaccine.
  • LAIV (live attenuated influenza vaccine) may only be given to healthy, nonpregnant persons 2 through 49 years of age.
  • Inactivated influenza vaccine may be given to persons 6 months of age and older. Note: Some brands are not approved for use in younger children.

* Most Influenza vaccine contain egg protein and may contain thimerosal (Thimerosal content varies and preservative-free formulations are available. The tip cap and the rubber plunger of the needleless prefilled syringes may contain dry natural latex rubber (see package insert). Persons with egg allergy who report only hives after egg exposure should receive inactivated influenza vaccine. The vaccine should be given by a healthcare provider who is familiar with signs and symptoms of egg allergy and the vaccine recipient should be monitored for at least 30 minutes for signs and symptoms of allergic reaction. Persons with severe allergy to eggs should be referred to a provider with expertise in the management of allergic conditions for further evaluation. NOTE: FluBlok does not use eggs in its manufacturing process and can be safely given to those with egg allergies.

Vaccine Ages Dose/Route Routine Administration Schedule
Afluria® 5 years of age and older

ACIP does not recommend for children <9 years of age due to risk for febrile seizures.
Dose: 0.5 mL
0.5 mL (3 years of age and older)
Route: Intramuscular (IM)
Single dose annually. Note: Children aged 6 months through 8 years need only 1 dose of vaccine for 2014–15 if they have received any of the following: 1) at least 1 dose of 2013–14 seasonal influenza vaccine; or 2) 2 or more doses of seasonal influenza vaccine since July 1, 2010; or 3) 2 or more doses of seasonal influenza vaccine before July 1, 2010, and 1 or more doses of monovalent 2009(H1N1) vaccine; or 4) 1 or more doses of seasonal influenza vaccine before July 1, 2010, and 1 or more doses of seasonal influenza vaccine since July 1, 2010. Children in this age group for whom one of these conditions is not met require 2 doses for 2014–15 administered at least 4 weeks apart.
Fluarix® 3 years of age and older Dose: 0.5 mL
Route: Intramuscular (IM)
Single dose annually. Note: Children aged 6 months through 8 years need only 1 dose of vaccine for 2014–15 if they have received any of the following: 1) at least 1 dose of 2013–14 seasonal influenza vaccine; or 2) 2 or more doses of seasonal influenza vaccine since July 1, 2010; or 3) 2 or more doses of seasonal influenza vaccine before July 1, 2010, and 1 or more doses of monovalent 2009(H1N1) vaccine; or 4) 1 or more doses of seasonal influenza vaccine before July 1, 2010, and 1 or more doses of seasonal influenza vaccine since July 1, 2010. Children in this age group for whom one of these conditions is not met require 2 doses for 2014–15 administered at least 4 weeks apart.
Fluarix Quadrivalent® 3 years of age and older Dose: 0.5 mL
Route: Intramuscular (IM)
Single dose annually. Note: Children aged 6 months through 8 years need only 1 dose of vaccine for 2014–15 if they have received any of the following: 1) at least 1 dose of 2013–14 seasonal influenza vaccine; or 2) 2 or more doses of seasonal influenza vaccine since July 1, 2010; or 3) 2 or more doses of seasonal influenza vaccine before July 1, 2010, and 1 or more doses of monovalent 2009(H1N1) vaccine; or 4) 1 or more doses of seasonal influenza vaccine before July 1, 2010, and 1 or more doses of seasonal influenza vaccine since July 1, 2010. Children in this age group for whom one of these conditions is not met require 2 doses for 2014–15 administered at least 4 weeks apart.
Flublok® 18 through 49 years of age Dose: 0.5 mL
Route: Intramuscular (IM)
Single dose annually.
Flucelvax® 18 years of age and older Dose: 0.5 mL
Route: Intramuscular (IM)
Single dose annually.
FluLaval® 3 years of age and older Dose: 0.5 mL
Route: Intramuscular (IM)
Single dose annually. Note: Children aged 6 months through 8 years need only 1 dose of vaccine for 2014–15 if they have received any of the following: 1) at least 1 dose of 2013–14 seasonal influenza vaccine; or 2) 2 or more doses of seasonal influenza vaccine since July 1, 2010; or 3) 2 or more doses of seasonal influenza vaccine before July 1, 2010, and 1 or more doses of monovalent 2009(H1N1) vaccine; or 4) 1 or more doses of seasonal influenza vaccine before July 1, 2010, and 1 or more doses of seasonal influenza vaccine since July 1, 2010. Children in this age group for whom one of these conditions is not met require 2 doses for 2014–15 administered at least 4 weeks apart.
FluLaval Quadrivalent® 3 years of age and older Dose: 0.5 mL
Route: Intramuscular (IM)
Single dose annually. Note: Children aged 6 months through 8 years need only 1 dose of vaccine for 2014–15 if they have received any of the following: 1) at least 1 dose of 2013–14 seasonal influenza vaccine; or 2) 2 or more doses of seasonal influenza vaccine since July 1, 2010; or 3) 2 or more doses of seasonal influenza vaccine before July 1, 2010, and 1 or more doses of monovalent 2009(H1N1) vaccine; or 4) 1 or more doses of seasonal influenza vaccine before July 1, 2010, and 1 or more doses of seasonal influenza vaccine since July 1, 2010. Children in this age group for whom one of these conditions is not met require 2 doses for 2014–15 administered at least 4 weeks apart.
FluMist® Healthy, non-pregnant persons 2 through 49 years of age Dose: 0.2 mL (half into each nostril)
Route: Intranasally
Single dose annually. Note: Children aged 6 months through 8 years need only 1 dose of vaccine for 2014–15 if they have received any of the following: 1) at least 1 dose of 2013–14 seasonal influenza vaccine; or 2) 2 or more doses of seasonal influenza vaccine since July 1, 2010; or 3) 2 or more doses of seasonal influenza vaccine before July 1, 2010, and 1 or more doses of monovalent 2009(H1N1) vaccine; or 4) 1 or more doses of seasonal influenza vaccine before July 1, 2010, and 1 or more doses of seasonal influenza vaccine since July 1, 2010. Children in this age group for whom one of these conditions is not met require 2 doses for 2014–15 administered at least 4 weeks apart.
Fluvirin® 4 years of age and older Dose: 0.5 mL
Route: Intramuscular (IM)
Single dose annually. Note: Children aged 6 months through 8 years need only 1 dose of vaccine for 2014–15 if they have received any of the following: 1) at least 1 dose of 2013–14 seasonal influenza vaccine; or 2) 2 or more doses of seasonal influenza vaccine since July 1, 2010; or 3) 2 or more doses of seasonal influenza vaccine before July 1, 2010, and 1 or more doses of monovalent 2009(H1N1) vaccine; or 4) 1 or more doses of seasonal influenza vaccine before July 1, 2010, and 1 or more doses of seasonal influenza vaccine since July 1, 2010. Children in this age group for whom one of these conditions is not met require 2 doses for 2014–15 administered at least 4 weeks apart.
Fluzone® 6 months of age and older Dose: 0.25 mL (6 -35 months of age)
0.5 mL (3 years of age and older)
Route: Intramuscular (IM)
Single dose annually. Note: Children aged 6 months through 8 years need only 1 dose of vaccine for 2014–15 if they have received any of the following: 1) at least 1 dose of 2013–14 seasonal influenza vaccine; or 2) 2 or more doses of seasonal influenza vaccine since July 1, 2010; or 3) 2 or more doses of seasonal influenza vaccine before July 1, 2010, and 1 or more doses of monovalent 2009(H1N1) vaccine; or 4) 1 or more doses of seasonal influenza vaccine before July 1, 2010, and 1 or more doses of seasonal influenza vaccine since July 1, 2010. Children in this age group for whom one of these conditions is not met require 2 doses for 2014–15 administered at least 4 weeks apart.
Fluzone High-Dose® 65 years of age and older Dose: 0.5 mL
Route: Intramuscular (IM)
Single dose annually. Note: Only licensed for use in persons 65 years of age and older. At this time no preference for use of Fluzone High-Dose vaccine over other inactivated influenza vaccines.
Fluzone Intradermal® 18 through 64 years of age Dose: 0.1 mL
Route: Intradermal
Single dose annually.
Fluzone Quadrivalent® 6 months of age and older Dose: 0.25 mL (6 -35 months of age)
0.5 mL (3 years of age and older)
Route: Intramuscular (IM)
Single dose annually. Note: Children aged 6 months through 8 years need only 1 dose of vaccine for 2014–15 if they have received any of the following: 1) at least 1 dose of 2013–14 seasonal influenza vaccine; or 2) 2 or more doses of seasonal influenza vaccine since July 1, 2010; or 3) 2 or more doses of seasonal influenza vaccine before July 1, 2010, and 1 or more doses of monovalent 2009(H1N1) vaccine; or 4) 1 or more doses of seasonal influenza vaccine before July 1, 2010, and 1 or more doses of seasonal influenza vaccine since July 1, 2010. Children in this age group for whom one of these conditions is not met require 2 doses for 2014–15 administered at least 4 weeks apart.
Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Side Effects
  • Soreness, redness, or swelling where the shot was given (15-20%).
  • Fever and malaise (<1%).
  • Severe allergic reaction (very rare).
Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine Side Effects
Some children and adolescents 2 through 17 years of age have reported mild reactions including:
  • Runny nose, nasal congestion, or cough.
  • Headache and muscle aches.
  • Fever.
  • Wheezing.
  • Abdominal pain or occasional vomiting or diarrhea.
  • Severe allergic reaction (very rare).

Some adults 18 through 49 years of age have reported:
  • Runny nose or nasal congestion.
  • Headache
  • Cough, chills, tiredness/weakness.
  • Sore throat.
  • Severe allergic reaction (very rare).
Product Name Supplied Storage and Handling
Afluria®
CSL Biotherapies
0.5 mL single dose prefilled syringes (10 per package), and 5 mL multi-dose vial (1 per package). Store refrigerated between 2° to 8°C (35° to 46°F). Protect from light at all times. Do not freeze. Discard if vaccine has been frozen.

Afluria® is a clear, colorless to slightly opalescent suspension with some sediment that resuspends upon shaking. Shake vial/syringe well before administering.
Agriflu®
Novartis Vaccines
0.5 mL single dose prefilled syringes (10 per package). Store refrigerated between 2° to 8°C (35° to 46°F). Protect from light at all times. Do not freeze. Discard if vaccine has been frozen.

Agriflu® is a clear aqueous suspension. Allow the vaccine to reach room temperature and shake before use.
FluLaval®
GlaxoSmithKline
5 mL multi-dose vial (1 per package). Store refrigerated between 2° to 8°C (35° to 46°F). Protect from light at all times. Do not freeze. Discard if vaccine has been frozen. Once entered, the multi-dose vial should be discarded after 28 days.

FluLaval® is a colorless to slightly opalescent suspension. Shake well before administering.
FluLaval Quadrivalent®
GlaxoSmithKline
5 mL multi-dose vial (1 per package). Store refrigerated between 2°C to 8°C (35°C to 46°CF). Protect from light at all times. Do not freeze. Discard if vaccine has been frozen. Once entered, the multi-dose vial should be discarded after 28 days.

FluLaval® is a colorless to slightly opalescent suspension. Shake well before administering.
Fluarix®
GlaxoSmithKline
0.5 mL single dose prefilled syringes. (10 per package) Store refrigerated between 2° to 8°C (35° to 46°F). Protect from light at all times. Do not freeze. Discard if vaccine has been frozen.

Fluarix® is a colorless to slightly opalescent suspension. Shake well before administering.
Fluarix Quadrivalent®
GlaxoSmithKline
0.5 mL single dose prefilled syringes. (10 per package) Store refrigerated between 2° to 8°C (35° to 46°F). Protect from light at all times. Do not freeze. Discard if vaccine has been frozen.

Fluarix Quadrivalent® is a colorless to slightly opalescent suspension. Shake well before administering.
Flublok®
Protein Sciences Corporation
0.5 mL single dose vial (10 per package). Store refrigerated between 2° to 8°C (35° to 46°F). Protect from light at all times. Do not freeze. Discard if vaccine has been frozen.

Flublok® is a clear, colorless solution. Shake vial gently before withdrawing dose.
Flucelvax®
Novartis Vaccines
0.5 mL single dose prefilled syringes (10 per package). Store refrigerated between 2° to 8°C (35° to 46°F). Protect from light at all times. Do not freeze. Discard if vaccine has been frozen.

Flucelvax® is a slightly opalescent suspension. Shake well before administering.
Fluvirin®
Novartis Vaccines
0.5 mL single dose prefilled syringes (10 per package) and 5 mL multi-dose vial (1 per package). Store refrigerated between 2° to 8°C (35° to 46°F). Protect from light at all times. Do not freeze. Discard if vaccine has been frozen.

Fluvirin® is a slightly opalescent suspension. Shake well before administering.
Fluzone®
Sanofi Pasteur
0.25 mL single dose prefilled syringes (10 per package), 0.5 mL single dose prefilled syringes (10 per package), 0.5 mL single dose vial (10 per package), and 5 mL multi-dose vial (1 per package). Store refrigerated between 2° to 8°C (35° to 46°F). Protect from light at all times. Do not freeze. Discard if vaccine has been frozen.

Fluzone® is a clear to a slightly opalescent suspension. Shake the syringe and single-dose vials well before administering the vaccine and shake the multi-dose vial each time before withdrawing a dose of vaccine.
Fluzone High-Dose®
Sanofi Pasteur
0.5 mL single dose prefilled syringes (10 per package). Store refrigerated between 2° to 8°C (35° to 46°F). Protect from light at all times. Do not freeze. Discard if vaccine has been frozen.

Fluzone High-Dose® is a clear to a slightly opalescent suspension. Shake the syringe well before administering the vaccine.
Fluzone Intradermal®
Sanofi Pasteur
0.1 mL single dose prefilled syringes (10 per package. Store refrigerated between 2° to 8°C (35° to 46°F). Protect from light at all times. Do not freeze. Discard if vaccine has been frozen.

Fluzone Intradermal® is a clear to a slightly opalescent suspension. Gently shake the syringe before administering the vaccine. See product insert for specific instructions on administration.
Fluzone Quadrivalent®
Sanofi Pasteur
0.25 mL single dose prefilled syringes (10 per package), 0.5 mL single dose prefilled syringes (10 per package), and 0.5 mL single dose vial (10 per package). Store refrigerated between 2° to 8°C (35° to 46°F). Protect from light at all times. Do not freeze. Discard if vaccine has been frozen.

Fluzone Quadrivalent® is a clear to a slightly opalescent suspension. Shake the syringe or vial well before administering the vaccine.
FluMist®
MedImmune
0.2 mL single-use sprayers (10 per package). Store refrigerated between 2° to 8°C (35° to 46°F). Do not freeze. Discard if vaccine has been frozen.

FluMist® is a colorless to pale yellow liquid and is clear to slightly cloudy. Administer half of the vaccine into one nostril. Then remove dose divider clip to administer the second half of the vaccine into the opposite nostril.     
Influenza Vaccine Product List and Age Groups - 2016-2017 Season (United States)
Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA) - Immunization Requirements 2016-2017
Information Paper
Healthcare professionals are invited to join us as Elizabeth Kalayil, MPH, Public Health Analyst with Carter Consulting, Inc.; Paul Malpiedi, MPH, Health Scientist with the National Healthcare Safety Network, CDC; and Megan Lindley, MPH, Deputy Associate Director for Science with the Immunization Services Division, CDC, provide a brief on "Reporting Healthcare Personnel Influenza Vaccination Summary Data through the National Healthcare Safety Network." (Recorded on 28 Oct 2015)
Ms. Sheila Pinter, Planning and Policy Analyst with the Office of Personnel Management and Ms. Judith Holl, Team Lead with the Occupational Health and Wellness HQ AFMC/SGPO Wright-Patterson Air Force Base will brief us on how Influenza negatively impacts productivity and vaccination helps protect employees. In addition, they will discuss the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) immunization program and provide tools and strategies to increase influenza vaccination rates among civilian employees. (recorded on 24 Jun 2015)
Each “Current Issues in Vaccines” webinar presents topics being addressed by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), covered by the media or asked by parents. Each presentation will be 40 to 45 minutes, followed by 15 to 20 minutes of audience questions. This issues topic is "•Influenza Vaccines: Making Sense of All the Choices". CE credits are available
Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA) - Immunization Requirements 2016-2017
Author: Karen Guice, M.D., M.P.P.
Memorandum from ASD (Health Affairs) for the 2016-2017 influenza season and immunization program.
US Department of Health and Human Services & US Office of Personnel Management
Author: Chu
DoD Instruction 6025.19
III MEF PDF 04 Jan 16
III MEF FORCE HEALTH PROTECTION (FHP) REQUIREMENTS 2016 (UPDATE)
05 Oct 15

Sample Q&A: Policy and Management

Who does the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), recommend receive an annual influenza vaccination?

ACIP recommends the use of the seasonal influenza vaccinations for all people 6 months and older. Additionally, emphasis on providing routine annual vaccinations to certain groups at higher risk for influenza infection or complications should be a priority:

  • Anyone who is at risk of complications from influenza, or more likely to require medical care.
  • Women who will be pregnant during influenza season.
  • Anyone with long-term health problems including heart disease, kidney disease, liver disease, lung disease, metabolic disease (diabetes), asthma, anemia and other blood disorders.
  • Anyone with a weakened immune system, long-term treatment with drugs such as steroids, and cancer treatment with x-rays or drugs.
  • Anyone with certain muscle or nerve disorders (such as spinal cord injuries, seizure disorders or cerebral palsy) that can lead to breathing or swallowing problems.
  • Anyone 6 months through 18 years of age on long-term aspirin treatment.
  • Residents of nursing homes and other chronic-care facilities.
  • Anyone who lives with or cares for people at high risk for influenza-related complications.
  • Health care providers.
  • Household contacts and caregivers of children from 0-5 years of age and people 50 years and older.
Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, United States, 2015–16 Influenza Season
Information on DoD Online 2015-16 Seasonal Influenza Vaccination Training
Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA) - Immunization Requirements 2016-2017
Federal Employees Health Benefits; Office of Personnel Management
Package Insert.  Afluria Trivalent 2016-2017.
Package Insert. Fluarix Quadrivalent 2016-2017.
Package Insert. Fluzone Quadrivalent 2016-2017.
Package Insert. Flulaval Quadrivalent 2016-2017.
Package Insert. Fluvirin Trivalent 2016-2017.
Package Insert.  Fluzone Trivalent 2016-2017.
Afluria
MedImmune 07 Jul 14
FluMist Quadrivalent
Sanofi-Pasteur 07 Jul 14
Fluzone Quadrivalent
GlaxoSmithKline 07 Jul 14
FLUARIX Quadrivalent
GlaxoSmithKline 07 Jul 14
FLULAVAL Quadrivalent
Flu Near You 09 Oct 11
A joint effort of Children's Hospital Boston, the Skoll Global Threats Fund and the American Public Health Association
MMQC-16-1382 21 Apr 16
2015 - 2016 Influenza Virus Vaccine / Disposition Instructions
MMI-16-4001 18 Feb 16
2016 - 2017 INFLUENZA VIRUS VACCINE - CALL FOR REQUIREMENTS / SUSPENSE 7 MAR 2016
MMQC-15-1338 15 May 15
Flulaval Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine / GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) / Update
MMQC-15-1325 12 May 15
2014-2015 Fluzone Quadrivalent Vaccine / Sanofi Pasteur, Inc.
MMQC-15-1255 16 Apr 15
2014 - 2015 Influenza Virus Vaccine / Disposition Instructions
MMQC-15-1254 15 Apr 15
Flulaval Quadrivalent Influenza Vaccine / GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) / SUSPENSE: 29 APRIL 2015
MMI-15-4001 26 Jan 15
2015 - 2016 INFLUENZA VIRUS VACCINE - CALL FOR REQUIREMENTS / SUSPENSE 27 FEB 2015
Author: DHA-IHB
Influenza Vaccine Product List and Age Groups - 2016-2017 Season (United States)
Federal Employees Health Benefits; Office of Personnel Management
Video: Influenza VaccineInfluenza Vaccine (0:30) 01 Dec 15
Author: Defense Media Activity
Get yourself vaccinated.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD)
Video: I Never Get the FluI Never Get the Flu (1:00) 10 Jan 13
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD)

The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases explains the emergence and potential spread of new influenza viruses.


Have you ever wondered why you need a flu vaccination each year? The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases explains the ever-changing nature of influenza viruses.
NFID Flu F.A.C.T.S. - Taking some simple steps, like washing your hands to stop the spread of germs and getting an annual flu shot, can help protect you from the flu.
1st Stryker Brigade Combat Team, 25th Infantry Division Brigade Support Medical Company vaccinates soldiers in southern Afghanistan in preparation of the upcoming flu season.
VIS
Vaccine Information Statement, Live, Attenuated Influenza Vaccine
Vaccine Information Statement, Inactivated Influenza Vaccine
Author(s): Fuller T, Gilbert M, Martin V, Cappelle J, Hosseini P, Njabo K, Abdel Aziz S, Xiao X, Daszak P, Smith T
Publication: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Subject: Disease
Disease: 
Influenza - Seasonal
Influenza - Pandemic
Author(s): Greenhawt MJ, Li JT
Publication: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, vol. 106
Subject: Vaccine-Safety
Disease: 
Influenza - Seasonal
Author(s): Government Accountability Office
Publication: GAO-13-374T
Subject: Vaccine-General
Disease: 
Influenza - Seasonal
Influenza - Pandemic
Author(s): Monto AS, Ohmit SE, Petrie JG, Johnson E, Truscon R, Teich E, Rotthoff J, Boulton M, Victor JC
Publication: NEJM
Subject: Vaccine-Effectiveness
Disease: 
Influenza - Seasonal