Neurological Dysfunction Following
Vaccination Algorithm (pdf)
ADEM is an intense autoimmune disease that produces multiple inflammatory lesions
in the brain and spinal cord that damages nerve fibers. ADEM occurs in fewer than
1 (0.8) per 100,000 people per year.
Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) is acute inflammation of gray and white matter across
both sides of one or more adjacent spinal cord segments. Damage will affect function
at that segment and segments below it. The cause of ATM is unknown.
GBS is a rare disorder in which the body's immune system attacks the nerves to the
legs and arms. GBS occurs in about 1 or 2 people per 100,000. It usually presents
as a weakness in the legs that spreads upwards to the arms, chest, and the face.
Guillain-Barré is one of the leading causes of non-trauma-induced paralysis.
Acute brachial plexus neuritis is an uncommon inflammatory condition of the nerves
in the shoulder that leads to severe shoulder and upper arm pain followed by marked
upper arm weakness. Brachial neuritis occurs in about 1 to 2 cases per 100,000 persons,
but this figure is probably low because many cases may be misdiagnosed, or the symptoms
are mild and clinically unrecognized.